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CREATION ART

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  • Photobucket Songs of Earth's Creations. In an endless cycle of eons she creates and destroys masterpieces, reusing her building materials to create anew. From death comes life.Photobucket
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    Tuesday, November 25, 2008

     

    Deepest Places on Earth




    http://geology.com/records/deepest-part-of-the-ocean.shtml

    Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench - Pacific Ocean


    The Greatest Ocean Depth:

    Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in Earth's oceans. The bottom there is 10,924 meters (35,840 feet) below sea level. If Mount Everest, the highest moutain on Earth, were placed at this location it would be covered by over one mile of water. The Challenger Deep is named after the British survey ship Challenger II, which discovered this deepest location in 1951.




    Map of the Mariana Trench - Deepest Point in Earth's Oceans - Image by CIA


    Why is the ocean so deep here?

    The Mariana Trench is located at a convergent plate boundary. Here two converging lithospheric plates collide with one another. At this collision point, one of the plates descends into the mantle. At the line of contact between the two plates the downward flexure forms a trough known as an ocean trench. An example of an ocean trench is shown in the diagram below.


    USGS Image.

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    http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03trench/trench/trench.html

    Atlantic Ocean







    Bathymetry of the northeast corner of the Caribbean plate

    Figure 1. Bathymetry of the northeast corner of the Caribbean plate. Click image for larger view and image credit.


    The Puerto Rico Trench: Implications for Plate Tectonics and Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards

    Uri ten Brink, Chief Scientist
    U.S. Geological Survey

    The Puerto Rico Trench is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, with water depths exceeding 8,400 meters (figure 1). Its depth is comparable to the deep trenches in the Pacific Ocean. Trenches in the Pacific are located in places where one tectonic plate subducts or slides under another one. The Puerto Rico Trench, in contrast, is located at a boundary between two plates that slide past each other with only a small component of subduction. The trench is less deep where the component of subduction is larger. The unusually deep sea floor is not limited to the trench, but also extends farther south toward Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Trench is also associated with the most negative gravity anomaly on earth, -380 milliGal, which indicates the presence of an active downward force. Finally, a thick limestone platform, which was originally deposited in flat layers near sea level, is now tilted northward at a uniform angle. Its northward edge is at a depth of 4,200 m, and its southern edge can be found on land in Puerto Rico at an elevation of a few hundred meters. Many tectonic models have been proposed to explain this geologically fascinating, tectonically active region; however, none have gained acceptance, and the region remains poorly understood, largely because its underwater location makes it difficult to study.

    click here for remainder of article

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    Mars/Earth comparison:

    Deepest Canyon

    The Grand Canyon of Mars, Valles Marineris, is 2,485 miles long, carving about one-fifth of the Martian circumference. The canyon is up to 370 miles wide and more than four miles deep. Compared to the Grand Canyon, the Mars canyon is almost 10 times longer, about 20 times wider and about four times deeper. But the Grand Canyon is not the Earth's deepest. The Mars canyon is two miles deeper than what is typically identified as the deepest canyon on Earth, Peru's Colca Canyon.

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    Deepest Canyon

    http://geology.com/records/deepest-canyon.shtml

    Deepest Canyon in the World
    Deepest Canyon in the United States



    Cotahuasi Canyon of Peru - the world's deepest



    Most people would probably bet that the "Grand Canyon" of Arizona is the deepest valley in the world. It is extremely well known and of enormous proportion. It is about 1737 meters deep - a little over one mile. Although the Grand Canyon is a very deep canyon, it is not Earth's deepest. That distinction belongs to Cotahuasi Canyon in southewestern Peru. Cotahuasi Canyon was cut by the Rio Cotahuasi, a tribuatary of the Rio Ocona, to a depth of approximately 3354 meters - over twice the depth of the Grand Canyon!

    Satellite image of southwestern Peru. The Pacific ocean is in the southwest corner of the mage but covered by a layer of white stratus clouds. Two deep canyons can be seen in the image. The eastern canyon was cut by the Rio Camana river and the western canyon was cut by the Rio Ocona. The large white area between these canyons is the snow-capped peak of Nudo Coropuna, a stratovolcano. At an elevation of 6617 meters it is the highest mountain in the Cordillera Occidental. The snowcap to the west is on Nevado Solimana, another stratovolcano at an elevation of 6117 meters. The main tributary of the Rio Ocona is the Rio Cotahuasi. The bottom of the Cotahuasi Canyon is 3354 meters below the top of the adjacent plateau. NASA Image.

    Hells Canyon: Deepest Canyon in the United States

    Hells Canyon is the deepest river-cut canyon in the United States. The highest point on the edge of the canyon is 7993 feet (2436 meters) above the canyon floor below. It is ten miles wide and was cut by the waters of the Snake River.

    Hells Canyon is a remote area. In the distance between the Hell's Canyon Dam on the southern end of the canyon and the Washington-Oregon border on the northern end of the canyon no roads cross it and only three roads make it down to the Snake River.

    The canyon is a unique natural area and in 1975 the United States Congress established the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area. It is now a park that anyone can visit. The park features scenic vistas, hiking, camping, mountain biking and other activities.

    Satellite image of Hells Canyon. In the southern part of this image the canyon, occupied by the Snake River, can be seen trending northeast-southwest. The canyon turns northwest and meanders in that direction in the northern part of the image. A Landsat Geocover image from NASA.


    Photograph showing the Snake River flowing through Hells Canyon. Image © iStockphoto and Norman Eder.

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    Greatest Rift

    http://www.guiding-stars.com/article/destination-guides/africa/tanzania-rift-valley.html

    http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml

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