tower house, cliff dwelling
Mesa Verde National Park, national park located in southwestern Colorado. Established in 1906, the park contains the most notable and best-preserved ancient cliff dwellings in the United States. Mesa Verde (Spanish for "green table") is so called because of the thick forests of green juniper and piñon trees that cover its level summit. The mesa rises abruptly from the Mancos and Montezuma valleys to an elevation of 600 m (2,000 ft) above the valley floor and reaches a maximum height of 2,600 m (8,500 ft) above sea level. Numerous canyons scar the surface of the mesa top, and in the precipitous walls of the canyons are large alcoves containing the remains of the multistory cliff dwellings.
The most notable of the cliff dwellings are Cliff Palace in Cliff Canyon, which contains more than 200 rooms and 23 kivas (ceremonial chambers); Spruce Tree House in Spruce Tree Canyon, with 114 rooms and 8 kivas; and Balcony House in Soda Canyon, a small cliff dwelling of 38 rooms and 2 kivas. Other sites are found on the mesa top. Park facilities include two museums, with exhibits illustrating the life, customs, and arts of the ancient occupants of the mesa.
viewing Cliff Palace
The ancient inhabitants of Mesa Verde were an agricultural people. The earliest inhabitants moved onto the mesa about AD 600 and lived on the mesa tops and in the alcoves from AD 600 to AD 1300. These people were the ancestors of the modern-day Pueblo Native Americans. Several of the cliff dwellings were explored in 1874; the major ruins were discovered in 1888. Area, 21,093 hectares (52,122 acres).
Text from Microsoft Encarta
the green hills
the Green Mesa
The first Ancestral Puebloans settled in Mesa Verde (Spanish for “green table”) about A.D. 550. They are known as Basketmakers because of their impressive skill at that craft. Formerly a nomadic people, they were now beginning to lead a more settled way of life. Farming replaced hunting-and-gathering as their main source of livelihood. They lived in pithouses clustered into small villages, which they usually built on the mesa tops but occasionally in the cliff recesses. They soon learned how to make pottery and they acquired the bow and arrow, a more efficient weapon for hunting than the atlatl (spear thrower).
a World Heritage site
These were fairly prosperous times for the Basket-makers, and their population multiplied. About 750 they began building houses above ground, with upright walls made of poles and mud. They built these houses one against another in long, curving rows, often with a pithouse or two in front. (The pithouses were probably the forerunners of the kivas of later times.) From then on, these people are known as Pueblos, a Spanish word for village dwellers.
The pithouse represents the beginnings of a settled way of life based on agriculture. Its basic features were a living room, squarish in shape and sunk a few feet into the ground, four main timbers at the corners to support the roof, a firepit with an air deflector, an antechamber, which might contain storage bins or pits, and a sipapu. Pithouses evolved into the kivas of later times. In Mesa Verde, the people lived in this type of dwelling from about 550 to 750.
By 1000 the people of Mesa Verde had advanced from pole-and-adobe construction to skillful stone masonry. Their walls of thick, double-coursed stone often rose two or three stories high and were joined together into units of 50 rooms or more. Pottery also changed, as black drawings on a white background replaced simple designs on dull gray. Farming provided more of the diet than before and much mesa-top land was cleared for that purpose.
The years from 1100 to 1300 were Mesa Verde’s Classic Period. The population may have reached several thousand. It was mostly concentrated in compact villages of many rooms, often with the kiva built inside the enclosing walls rather than out in the open. Round towers began to appear, and there was a rising level of craftsmanship in masonry work, pottery, weaving, jewelry, and even toolmaking. The stone walls of the large pueblos are regarded as the finest ever built in Mesa Verde; they are made of carefully shaped stones laid up in straight courses. Baskets show evidence of decline in quality but this may be due to the widespread use of pottery and consequent less attention to the craft.
Kiva is a Hopi word for ceremonial room. The kivas at Mesa Verde were underground chambers that may be compared to churches of later times. Based upon modern Pueblo practice, Ancestral Puebloans may have used these rooms to conduct healing rites or to pray for rain, luck in hunting, or good crops. Kivas also served as gathering places, and sometimes as a place to weave. A roof of beams and mud covered each kiva, supported by pilasters. Access was by ladder through a hole in the center of the roof. The small hole in the floor is a sipapu, the symbolic entrance to the underworld.
ventilator shaft of the Kiva
About 1200 there was another major population shift. The people began to move back into the cliff alcoves that had sheltered their ancestors long centuries before. We do not know why they made this move. Perhaps it was for defense; perhaps the alcoves offered better protection from the elements; perhaps there were religious or psychological reasons. Whatever the reason or combination of reasons, it gave rise to the cliff dwellings for which Mesa Verde is most famous.
Most of the cliff dwellings were built from the late 1190s to the late 1270s. They range in size from one-room houses to villages of more than 200 rooms— Cliff Palace. Architecturally, there is no standard ground plan. The builders fit their structures to the available space. Most walls were single courses of stone, perhaps because the alcove roofs limited heights and also protected them from erosion by the weather. The masonry work varied in quality; rough construction can be found alongside walls with well-shaped stones. Many rooms were plastered on the inside and decorated with painted designs.
On the Mesa walls the alcoves are formed
The Ancestral Puebloans lived in the cliff dwellings for less than 100 years. By about 1300 Mesa Verde was deserted. There are several theories about the reasons for their migration. We know that the last quarter of the century was a time of drought and crop failures, but these people had survived earlier droughts. Maybe after hundreds of years of intensive use the land and its resources—the soil, the forests, and the animals—were depleted. Perhaps there were social and political problems, and the people looked for new opportunities elsewhere.
When the people of Mesa Verde left, they traveled south into New Mexico and Arizona, settling among their kin already there. Whatever happened, some of today’s Pueblo people, and perhaps other tribes, are descendants of the cliff dwellers of Mesa Verde.
Spruce Tree House
Bookcliffs at Grand Junction Colorado
Labels: earth sculptures
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